Tony elumelu foundation entrepreneurship 2022 grant

How to apply for 2022 Tony Elumelu Foundation $5000 grant

The Tony Elumelu Foundation (TEF), the leading philanthropy empowering young African entrepreneurs across all 54 African countries, has opened applications for the 2022 TEF Entrepreneurship Programme on African entrepreneurs with business ideas or existing businesses under 5 years, are encouraged to apply now for $5000 seed capital, mentorship, business management training and more on the 2022 Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Programme

Since 2015, the TEF Entrepreneurship Programme – the only African-funded entrepreneurship catalyst of its kind – has empowered 15,847 African entrepreneurs with non-returnable seed capital of $5,000 each; twelve weeks of business management training; access to experienced mentors; and membership to Africa’s largest entrepreneurial ecosystem.

In 2021, the Tony Elumelu Foundation disbursed USD$24.75 million to 5000 African entrepreneurs across Africa for its 2021 Entrepreneurship Programme. The Foundation’s Entrepreneurship Programme remains one of the largest private sector responses to driving the economic recovery of African youth, women and SMEs given the effects of the covid19 pandemic across Africa.  Across Africa, the Tony Elumelu Foundation Entrepreneurship Programme beneficiaries are starting and growing trailblazing businesses that have collectively created over 400,000 direct and indirect jobs.


Source: Nairametrics

cancer mortality facts


Urinary System Cancers

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant cells arise in the bladder. Symptoms can include blood in the urine, pain during urination, increased frequency of passing urine, or feeling the need to urinate but with nothing coming out. The bulk of bladder cancers are histlogically classed as transitional cell carcinomas which arise in the uroepithelium (lining of the bladder). Other types include squamous cell carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas. Treatment will depend on how far the tumour has invaded the surrounding tissues, and if it has spread to other parts of the body. World-wide about 260,000 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year.

Kidney Cancer

Renal cell cancer (kidney cancer) is a disease in which malignant cells arise from tissues of the kidney. This is one of the less common types of cancer and it occurs more frequently in men compared to women. The vast majority of renal cell cancers are histologically classed as adenocarcinomas, these may be subdivided into clear cell and granular cell types (in some cases the 2 types can occur together in the same tumour). There are other less common types of non-adenocarcinoma kidney cancers including transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Wilms’ tumour is another type of kidney cancer, which is almost exclusively found in children.

Urethral Cancer

Urethral cancer is a rare disease where the cells of the urethra become malignant. The urethra is the tube that empties urine from the bladder. In women, the urethra is approximately 4 cm long and opens to the outside of the body above the vagina. In men, the urethra is approximately 20 cm long, going through the prostate gland and then through the penis to the outside of the body

Genitourinary (Male) Cancers

Penile (Penis) Cancer


Cancer can affect any part of the penis, but is most common on the foreskin and on the glans (the sensitive bulbous end of the penis). It is most commonly diagnosed in med aged over 50. The vast majority (about 95%) are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer developing in the flat skin cells). Less common types of penile cancer include verrucous carcinoma (Buschke-Lowenstein tumor), melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma (sweat glands) and penile sarcoma.

Prostate Cancer


Prostate cancer accounts for over a quarter of all cancers in men. The prostate is a small male sex gland located below the bladder, it produces fluid that becomes semen. Prostate cancer occurs mostly in older men, it is rare before the age of 50, and the risk increases with age. There has been an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer since the early 1980’s, most likely due to an increased use of screening using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. However, the role as screening for prostate cancer remains controversial. World-wide about 395,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year.

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is most common cancer in men between 15 to 35 years old. There are two broad types: seminoma and nonseminoma histologies. The nonseminoma group of cancers includes embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac carcinoma and choriocarcinoma. The two testicles (or testis) produce sperm and male hormones. Men who have an undescended testicle (a testicle that didn’t move down into the scrotum) are at higher risk of developing testicular cancer. World-wide about 36,000 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer each year.

Urethral Cancer

Urethral cancer is a rare disease where the cells of the urethra become malignant. The urethra is the tube that empties urine from the bladder. In women, the urethra is approximately 4 cm long and opens to the outside of the body above the vagina. In men, the urethra is approximately 20 cm long, going through the prostate gland and then through the penis to the outside of the body

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer and accounts for half of all new cancers in Western populations. It occurs more often in people with light coloured skin who have had a high exposure to sunlight. The two most frequent types of skin cancer are Basal Cell Carcinomas and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (often grouped under “non-melanoma skin cancer”). The third most frequent skin cancer is Melanoma, this is a malignancy of the cells which give the skin it’s colour (melanocytes). In addition there are a number of other, less common cancers starting in the skin including Merkel cell tumours, cutaneous lymphomas, and sarcomas (see the pages on sarcoma and lymphoma in this guide).

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped organs situated inside the chest, they bring oxygen into the body and take out waste carbon dioxide. There is a strong link between smoking and lung cancer. There are two main categories of lung cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) , and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). World-wide over 1 million people are diagnosed with lung cancer each year.

Haematological Malignancies & Realted Disorders

Childhood Leukaemia

Leukaemia is the most common cancer of childhood. The body produces lymphocytes to protect the body from infection, in leukaemia these cells do not mature properly and become too numerous in the blood and bone marrow. Leukaemias may be acute or chronic. The most common type is acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There are a number of other less common acute types which may be grouped together as acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia (ANLL), this includes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This page contains links to information specifically related to Childhood Leukaemia, other relevant resources are available via the Main Menu of Children’s Cancer Web

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia or ALL) is a disease where too many immature lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) are found in the blood and bone marrow. Symptoms can include persistent fever, weakness or tiredness, achiness in the bones or joints, or swollen lymph nodes. Adult ALL and its treatment is usually different to childhood ALL. Almost a third of adult patients have a specific chromosome translocation; “Philadelphia Positive” ALL.

Hairy Cell Leukemia

Leukemia is a condition where the bone marrow makes too many immature white blood cells. In Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL) is a specific kind of leukemia affecting B­-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. In HCL fine, hair-like strands develop around the outside of abnormal B­-lymphocytes, visible under a microscope. HCL accounts for about 2% of all cases of leukemia, it is a chronic leukemia (tending to develop slowly) and occurs most frequently in people aged 40-60.
Head and Neck Cancers

Head and neck cancers are malignancies arising in the upper aerodigestive tract (this includes: lip, tongue, salivary glands, mouth, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, nasal cavity, and larynx). Laryngeal (voice-box) cancer is the most frequent type, accounting for about a quarter of head and neck cancers.

Nasopharyngeal Cancer

The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. Nasopharyngeal cancer occurs when the cells of the nasopharynx become abnormal and start growing in an uncontrolled way. The majority of nasopharyngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (squamous cells are the thin, flat cells in the lining of the nasopharynx), but there are a number of other different types.



Hypopharyngeal Cancer

The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat). The hypopharynx is sometimes also known as the laryngopharynx. Hypopharyngeal cancer occurs when the cells of the hypopharnx become abnormal and start growing in an uncontrolled way. The majority of hypopharyngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (squamous cells are the thin, flat cells in the lining of the hypopharynx), but there are a number of other different types.

Oropharyngeal Cancer

The oropharynx is the middle part of the pharynx (throat) behind the mouth. It is important for speach and swallowing. The oropharynx includes the soft palate, base of the tongue, side walls of the throat and the posterior pharyngeal wall. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs when the cells of the oropharynx become abnormal and start growing in an uncontrolled way. The majority of oropharyngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (squamous cells are the thin, flat cells in the lining of the oropharynx), but there are a number of other different types.

Salivary Gland Cancer

The salivary glands make saliva, which contains a range of enzymes which help digest food and protect against infections of the mouth and throat. There are 3 pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of minor microscopic salivary glands:

  • Parotid glands: the largest salivary glands,located in front of and just below each ear. Aproximately 80% of salivary gland tumors begin in the parotid glands.
  • Submandibular glands: found below the jawbone. Between 10-15% of salivary gland tumours are found in the submandibular glands
  • Sublingual glands: found under the tongue in the floor of the mouth.
  • Minor salivary glands there are several hundred tiny salivary glands lining parts of the mouth, nose, and larynx.

More than half of all salivary gland tumours are benign (non cancerous). Malignant (cancerous) tumours are designated high-grade or low-grade, depending on how they look under the microsope.


Gastrointestinal System Cancers: Digestive and Gastrointestinal System cancers.

Appendix Cancer

Cancer of the Appendix (also known as appendiceal cancer) occurs when cells in the appendix become abnormal and multiply without control. There are a range of different types of tumours and cancers which can start in the appendix. About two thirds of appendix tumours are carcinoid tumours which develop in hormone-producing cells that are present in many parts of the body, including the appendix. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma account for about a fifth of appendix tumours, these produces mucin (a jelly-like substance). Pseudomyxoma Peritonei (PMP) is a more common name given to the “jelly belly” syndrome caused by mucinous adenoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Less common tumours of the appendix include signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma and paraganglioma. Treatment varies according to the type and stage of tumour.

Anal Cancer

Anal cancer is an uncommon cancer, in which malignant cells are found in the anus (the opening at the end of the rectum through which the body passes waste). Cancer in the outer anus is more frequent in men, whilst cancer in the inner part of the rectum (the anal canal) is more frequent in women.

Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Colorectal cancer (or bowel cancer) is one of the most common types of cancer in both men and women. Approximately four fifths of these cancers are found in the colon (large intestine), and one fifth in the rectum. Prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer is important. Some of most common symptoms include a change in bowel habit (eg. constipation, and bleeding), mucus discharge, and discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen. The vast majority of colon and rectum cancers are adenocarcinomas, around 10% of these are mucinous (protein contained in mucus). The median age at diagnosis is 70, age adjusted incidence rates are slightly higher in males compared to females. A substantial proportion of cases are in those with a genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer. Diet may also have an influence on the incidence of colorectal cancer, diatry fibre, retinoids, and calcium are thought to be protective, while high intake of animal fats may increases risk. Colorectal cancer may develop from benign polyps (a polyp is a tumour on a stem most commonly found on mucous membranes). World-wide about 782,000 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer each year.

Liver Cancer

Primary liver cancer is a disease in which the cells of liver become cancerous (malignant). Primary liver cancer is different from cancer that has spread from another place in the body to the liver. The liver is found in the upper right side of the abdomen. It is an an important organ which is involved in digesting food and converting it to energy and it also filters and stores blood. Liver cancer is relatively rare, known risk factors for liver cancer are prior hepatitis B or C infections or cirrhosis of the liver. There are two main types of liver cancer in adults: hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatoblastoma is another type of liver cancer which mostly occurs in children. Some types of liver cancer produce abnormaly high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) which can aid diagnosis.

Stomach Cancer

Gastric cancer (cancer of the stomach) is a disease in which malignant cells arise in the tissues of the stomach. Early symptoms can include indigestion, feeling bloated after eating, mild nausea, loss of appetite, or heartburn. In more advanced stages symptoms may include blood in the stool, vomiting, weight loss, or pain in the stomach. Known risk factors include prior stomach infection by Helicobacter pylori, smoking, frequent diet of dry salted foods, Menetrier’s disease, and familial polyposis. Most cancers of the stomach are adenocarcinomas of which there are many sub-types.

Endocrine Malignancies

Cancer of the Pancreas

Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which the cells of the pancreas become malignant. The pancreas has two main functions; (i) it makes juices that help digest food and (ii) produces hormones (including insulin) that conrol how food is used and stored in the body. The vast majority of pancreatic cancers are associated with the part of the pancreas that makes digestive juices – these are known as “exocrine” pancreatic cancers. Only about 1/20 pancreatic cancers start in the hormone producing part of the pancreas ; these are known as “endocrine” pancreatic cancer or “islet cell cancer”. There are several types of exocrine pancreatic cancers (based on how the cells appear under the microsope), most are classed as “ductal adenocarcinomas”. Pancreatic cancer is rare before the age of 40 years, incidence increases sharply with increasing age.

Parathyroid Cancer

The parathyroid gland is located at the base of the neck near the thyroid gland. It produces a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which controls how the body stores and uses calcium. Parathyroid cancer is a condition where the cells of the parathyroid gland become malignant (cancerous). Parathyroid cancers are rare; while problems with the parathyroid gland are common, these are not usually cancer related.

Thyroid Cancer

Cancer of the thyroid is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells are found in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the base of the throat and produces hormones that help the body function normally. Most patients are between 25 and 65 years old, thyroid cancer is more common in women than in men. It is the most common malignancy of the endocrine (hormone) system. There are four main types of thyroid cancer (depending on the type of cell that the cancer developed in); papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma. Occasionally other types of cancer (lymphoma, sarcoma and carcinosarcoma) can be found in the thyroid gland. Some thyroid cancers are caused by exposure to radiation and some medullary carcinomas are associated with an inherited condition (multiple endocrine neoplasia). However, in the large majority of cases the cause is unknown.

Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas are rare tumors which form in neural crest tissue, a type of nerve tissue found in the adrenal glands and near certain blood vessels and nerves throughout the body. Paragangliomas that develop in the adrenal glands are called pheochromocytomas. Those that develop outside the adrenal glands (‘extra-adrenal’) are called paragangliomas. Most of these tumors are considered to be benign and about a quarter of cases are known to be related to inherited genetic conditions.

Pituitary Tumors

The pituitary is an endocrine (hormone-producing) gland located in the brain, behind the bridge of the nose. It is only about the size of a pea, but plays a vital role as the ‘master gland’ by making hormones that regulate growth and the activity of other glands around the body. There are different types of tumors that can develop in the pituitary. The most common type is pituitary adenoma, which is usually slow growing and benign – these can affect people of all ages, but more women are more affected than men, particularly between ages 30-60. There are many other types of pituitary tumors, including pituitary carcinoma (malignant) and spindle cell oncocytoma, pituicytomas, granular cell tumor. The tumors may be classed as ‘secretory’ (honrmone producing) or ‘non-functional’ (non or reduced hormone producing). They are also classed by size: most are microadenomas (small tumors), but a minority are macroadenomas (larger tumours).

Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

The thymus is a small organ located beneath the breastbone, it is part of the immune system and produces T-lymphocytes – cells which kill viruses and signal B-lymphocytes to make antibodies to fight infection. About 90 percent of tumors that start in the thymus are thymomas. Thyomas begin in the cells which line the thymus (epithelial cells) and look similar to normal thymus cells under the microscope. Thymomas range from slow growing tumors that rarely spread outside the thymus, to more aggressive tumors, which can potentially spread to nearby organs in the chest, such as the lining of the lung (the pleura). Thymic Carcinoma also starts in the cells which line the thymus, but looks different to normal thymus cells under the microscope. These are more likely to spread to other parts of the body. Thymic Carcinoids are a rarer type of tumour which start in hormone-producing cells. Thymic carcinoids are sometimes associated with a rare genetic disorder: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome. Other rare types include Thymolipoma and primary thymic lymphoma.

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women, the risk of breast cancer increases with age, it is most common after the age of 50. Each breast has 15- 20 sections (lobes), each of which has many smaller sections (lobules). The lobes and lobules are connected by thin tubes (ducts). The most frequent type of breast cancer is that starting in the ducts (ductal cancer), other types include cancer beginning in the lobes or lobules (lobular carcinoma), less common is Inflammatory breast cancer which causes the breast to be red, and swollen. The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in Western countries, the rate of increase has been faster in younger women, however, the cause of most breast cancers remains unknown. World-wide about 794,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year.

Breast cancer in pregnancy

Diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy is rare. However, risk of breast cancer increases with age, so more cases are occurring as many women are having children at an older age compared to previous generations. Breasts undergo significant changes when you become pregnant as they develop milk ducts for breast feeding and grow in size. These changes can make it difficult to diagnose breast cancer. Most lumps in the breast found during pregnancy are not cancer, but you should get them checked out by your doctor as soon as possible.

Familial Breast Cancer

There is a growing body of research into genetic factors in breast cancer. In particular about 5% of women with breast cancer have an abnormality of the BRCA1 gene which is localised to chromosome 17q21. In women who inherit this altered gene have a highly increased risk of developing breast cancer, and tend to develop breast cancer at younger age. BRCA1 gene mutation has also been linked to an increased risk for ovarian cancer. Similarly, another gene – BRCA2 which is localised to chromosome 13q12-13 also gives a higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

Male Breast Cancer

Male breast cancer is uncommon, men account for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Incidence in Western populations is under 1 case per 100,000 men, though rates reported in some African countries are much higher. The majority of male breast cancers are of the infiltrating ductal type, this is where the cancer has spread beyond the cells lining ducts in the breast. In many respects male breast cancer is similar to that found in women, though in general men tend to be older than women at diagnosis. Treatment tends to be the same as that for women with breast cancer of the same type and stage.

Paget’s Disease of the Breast

Paget’s disease is a type of breast cancer that occurs in the ducts adjacent to the nipple and areola and spreads to the skin of the nipple and the areola. It accounts for less than 2 percent of all breast cancer cases, predominantly in women but with rare cases in men. Symptoms can be similar to eczema. Paget’s disease is usually associated with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), limited to the nipple and areola area of the breast.

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumours

Brain tumours are the most common solid tumour of childhood. Some are benign others are malignant. There are a number of different types of brain tumour; how they are classified depends on the histology and location within the brain. This page contains links to information specifically related to Childhood Brain Tumours, other relevant resources are availible via the Main Menu of Children’s Cancer Web.

Pituitary Tumors

The pituitary is an endocrine (hormone-producing) gland located in the brain, behind the bridge of the nose. It is only about the size of a pea, but plays a vital role as the ‘master gland’ by making hormones that regulate growth and the activity of other glands around the body. There are different types of tumors that can develop in the pituitary. The most common type is pituitary adenoma, which is usually slow growing and benign – these can affect people of all ages, but more women are more affected than men, particularly between ages 30-60. There are many other types of pituitary tumors, including pituitary carcinoma (malignant) and spindle cell oncocytoma, pituicytomas, granular cell tumor. The tumors may be classed as ‘secretory’ (honrmone producing) or ‘non-functional’ (non or reduced hormone producing). They are also classed by size: most are microadenomas (small tumors), but a minority are macroadenomas (larger tumours).


Neurofibromatosis is normally a benign (non-cancerous) condition. NF is a range of genetic disorders which cause tumours to grow along various types of nerves and can also affect the bones and skin. The majority of cases are von Recklinghausen’s Disease (NF type 1) often characterised by cafe-au-lait spots on the skin. Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is much rarer, this is characterised by multiple tumours on the nerves of the brain and spine, and can affect hearing.

Bone Cancers

Primary bone tumours are tumours that start in the bone. In contrast, secondary bone cancer is where the cancer started in another part of the body but has then spread to the bones. The most common types of primary bone tumour are osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma, both of which are most frequently diagnosed in children and young adults. Other less common types of bone cancer include: Chondrosarcoma (a cancer arising in cartilage cells, usually found in adults between ages 50-75, though the less common mesenchymal-chondrosarcoma is more frequent in younger patients), Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of bone (MFH), Chondoma (a rare low grade malignancy occuring mostly between ages 30 -70), and other rare tumours.



Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in bone cartilage. The most frequent

primary sites are the pelvis, shoulder, ribs, or at the ends of the arms and legs. Chondrosarcoma can occur at any age but is more common in people older than 40 years.

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma, which tend to occur in younger people.

Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma is a rare type of chondrosarcomadoes, which forms in the soft tissues, rather than bone cartilage.

Ewing’s Sarcoma

Ewing’s sarcoma / Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNET) of bone is a type of cancer usually found in children and young adults. The peak incidence is between ages 10 and 20, it is less common in children under 5 or in adults over 30. Ewing’s s can occur in any bone in the body; the most common sites are the pelvis, thigh, lower leg, upper arm, and rib. The tumour is composed of small round blue cells. Ewing’s sarcoma can also arise in soft tissue (extra-skeletal); see Soft Tissue Sarcoma in this guide.


Osteogenic Sarcoma (osteosarcoma) is a bone forming cancer. It is the    most frequent type of bone tumour and is most common between the ages of 15 to 25. Over 90% of tumours are located in the metaphysis (the growing ends of the bone), the most common sites are the bones around the knee which account for 80% of cases. Osteosarcomas vary greatly in radiological and pathological features and therefore needs careful diagnosis to differentiate this from other bone tumours. Most are high grade intramedullary osteosarcomas, about 5% are low grade lesions, some are secondary osteosarcomas (for example those caused by radiation therapy).

Figure 1. Radiograph showing an osteolytic and osteoblastic intra-medullary tumor characteristic of osteosarcoma. From Layfield J et al. Clin Med Pathol. 2008; 1: 55-59. Available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-3.0 license.

Gynacological Cancers

Gynaecological cancers are a group of different malignancies of the female reproductive system. The most common types of gynaecologic malignancies are cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial (uterus) cancer. There are other less common gynaecological malignancies including cancer of the vagina, cancer of the vulva, gestational trophoblastic tumours, and fallopian tube cancer. Occasionally skin cancers or sarcomas can also be found in the female genitalia. Generally, most gynaecological cancers are found in women aged over 50, though the incidence rates for younger women have been rising.

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is a common type of malignancy accounting for about 6% of all cancers found in women. It is a disease in which cancerous cells develop in the uterine cervix (this is the connecting passage between the uterus and vagina). The human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the principal cause of most cervical cancers. The peak incidence of cervical cancer occurs between the ages of 40 to 55. It is rare before the age of 35, however the incidence of cervical cancer in younger women rose dramatically during the two decades after 1960. Regular Pap smear tests may detect abnormal changes in the cervical tissues, before cancer develops. Symptoms of cervical cancer may include vaginal bleeding after intercourse or bleeding between periods. However, in the early stages of the disease there are often no obvious signs or symptoms, so regular smear tests are important.

Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer

Endometrial cancer is a malignancy of the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus, or womb) and is the most common gynaecological cancer, and accounts for 13% of all cancers in women. It is most frequently in women over age 50. A know risk factor is prior oestrogen-replacement therapy (however, oestrogen replacement also lowers risk of heart disease). Symptoms can include pelvic pain, and blood-soaked discharge – though these are also common symptoms related to menopausal changes.

Fallopian Tube Cancer

Primary fallopian tube cancer (tubal cancer) is rare and accounts for just 1 to 2 percent of all gynecologic cancers. It is more common for cancer to spread (metastasize) from other parts of the body than for cancer to originate in the fallopian tubes.

Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor

Gestational trophoblastic tumours (GTT) are a rare group of diseases in which the tissues formed in the uterus following conception grow abnormally to form a tumour. Most GTTs are benign (not cancer) and do not spread, but some types can become malignant (cancer) and spread to nearby tissues or distant parts of the body. There are three main types of gestational trophoblastic tumours: (i) hydatidiform mole (aslo known as molar pregnancy) – this is where the sperm and egg have joined but the tissues formed develop into a cyst; and (ii) choriocarcinoma – this can begin from a hydatidiform mole or from tissue that remains in the uterus following the delivery of a baby; (iii) placental-site trophoblastic disease – this is very rare and starts in the area of the uterus where the placenta was attached.

Ovarian Cancer

Cancer of the ovaries are the second most common group of gynaecologic cancers, and account for about 5% of all women’s cancers. There are two main types; (i) epithelial tumours (carcinomas) which account for 90% of ovarian cancers, and (ii) non-epithelial tumours (eg. Stroma cell and germ cell tumours of the ovary). The epithelial ovarian cancers are usually found in women aged over 40, while the non-epithelial tumours are more common in girls and young women. Epithelial ovarian cancer has few early symptoms, a risk factor is having a family history of the disease. Taking the contraceptive pill is known to be protective against ovarian cancer.

Vaginal Cancer

Cancer of the vagina is relatively rare, accounting for about 2% of gynaecological malignancies. There are two main types of vaginal cancer; squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Over four fifths of all vaginal cancers are squamous carcinoma, this is more common in women between the ages of 60 and 80. The other type of vaginal cancer; adenocarcinoma is usually found in young women under 30 years old.

Vulva Cancer

The vulva is the area of the external sex organs of a woman. It is made up of two outer lips (the labia majora), which are covered in pubic hair and surround two inner lips (the labia minora). Between these lips are the entrances to the vagina and the the urethra (the short tube that passes urine from the bladder). Cancer of the vulvar (known as vulval or valvar cancer) occurs where the cells of the vulva become abnormal and grow in an uncontrolled way. There are a number of different types of cancer of the vulva. Most (about 90%) are squamous cell carcinoma which develop in the flat squamous skin cells. Less common cancers of the vulva include vulval melanoma, adenocarcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the vulva is a pre-cancerous condition where glandular cells spread outwards and across the vulval skin.

Uterine Sarcoma

Uterine sarcoma is a rare kind of cancer in which the cells in the muscles or other supporting tissues of the uterus become cancerous, and represents 1% of gynaecological cancers overall. This is very different to endometrial (uterus) cancer – see above. There are two main histological sub-types; leiomyosarcoma, and stromal sarcoma. A known risk factor for developing uterine sarcoma is prior radiotherapy to the pelvic area, this is estimated to account for between 10% to 25% of cases.


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united nations

UNDP’s 11th Annual Match Against Poverty

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

#povertymatch BERNE, Switzerland The United Nations Development Programme again mobilized its team of top football players to compete against a European football club to raise both funds for and awareness of the extreme poverty challenges facing the world. This year, two thirds of the match proceeds will be used to bolster recovery efforts in the Philippines, where more than 5,000 people lost their lives to Typhoon Haiyan, with almost 1 million people displaced and an estimated further 11.8 million affected. To bolster the local economy UNDP has already begun a cash-for-work project clearing debris in Tacloban, and will continue its efforts to help those who have lost homes, businesses and jobs as a result of the typhoon. Quoting UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Petra Lantz, Director of the UNDP Offices in Geneva, called the annual event “global solidarity at its best,” and thanked the Berne Football Club, Young Boys, all the players and the 21,000 fans “for coming out to show their support for the Philippines.” Last night, Brazilian female football legend and UNDP Goodwill Ambassador Marta Vieira da Silva joined the all male team for only the second time in the Match’s history, calling attention to the plight of women and noting that this Saturday, 8 March, is International Women’s Day. “When women are lifted out of poverty, families are lifted out of poverty, and the world has more hope.” Marta, who won the FIFA Female World Player of the Year five consecutive times, recently launched a video appeal to assist the victims of Typhoon Haiyan. “This latest chapter of the Match against takes us back to Switzerland, where we started out 11 years ago”, noted Zinédine Zidane. My good friend Ronaldo invited me to take part in this adventure to help tackle poverty and it has been an honour to join him year after year. “I am very happy to be in a position to be able to contribute to the important cause championed by UNDP,” said Ronaldo, speaking to a press conference an hour before the Match. “All three of us footballers up here on the podium grew up in poverty. If our lives and our game can contribute to its reduction then the beautiful game will truly be beautiful.” The first edition of the UNDP Match Against Poverty was held in Basel in 2003. Since then the match has taken place in Madrid, Dusseldorf, Marseille, Malaga, Fes, Lisbon, Athens, Hamburg and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Each match, which is televised around the world, has supported specific projects in different countries facing difficult challenges. Although a friendly match, the players competed with passion as though it were a World Cup playoff match, ending 8:6 for the team of all-stars from UNDP. “Although UNDP scored 8 and the Bern team Young Boys scored 6, it was really the Philippines that scored 14 because both sides were playing for them,” said UNDP Partnerships Manager Aziyade Poltier, who organizes the Match Against Poverty each year.

No Exceptions, No Exclusions

No Exceptions, No Exclusions: Realizing sexual and reproductive health, rights and justice for all

Author: Gretchen Luchsinger

Publisher: High-Level Commission on the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25 Follow-up

The first report of the High-Level Commission on the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25 Follow-up, finds progress on some of the Nairobi commitments, but overall notes a harrowing setback in sexual and reproductive health and rights around the world, and calls for ambitious, deliberate and comprehensive action to achieve sexual and reproductive justice for all, in particular women and girls.

The Commission, an independent advisory body, co-chaired by H.E. Jakaya Kikwete, Former President of the United Republic of Tanzania and H.E. Michaëlle Jean, 27th Governor General of Canada and former Secretary-General of the International Organization of la Francophonie, consists of eminent leaders from diverse sectors, from around the world and was formed to track progress on the commitments in the Nairobi Statement. These are twelve core, overarching commitments, that encapsulate the over 1,300 voluntary commitments made by Governments and other stakeholders at the landmark Nairobi Summit on ICPD25 that took place in November 2019.

The report highlights sexual and reproductive rights as a basic prerequisite for achieving the commitments, while also pointing to the fragility of rights, which remain far out of reach for many people, and argues for a comprehensive agenda for sexual and reproductive justice. The report notes that the global COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the glaring inequities of people who face different, intersecting forms of discrimination based on their gender, race, age, disability, poverty, and status as a migrant or refugee.

The Commission’s report considers constraints on quality, accessible sexual and reproductive health care due to the pandemic that have undermined or delayed progress on the 12 commitments. At the same time, it highlights innovations born out of necessity that have kept services going and even offered new models that can be more widely replicated.

The report also takes up the financing of the ICPD agenda and the financial commitments, both domestic and international, reflected in the Nairobi Statement. It calls attention to concerning developments to defund sexual and reproductive health and rights. In the last chapter of the report the Commission’s looks into forces propelling and pushing back against advances on the Nairobi commitments, and the levels of accountability that will keep progress on track towards sexual and reproductive justice.

The report concludes with the Commission’s Call for Action for all relevant partners, including governments, civil society, the private sector, academia, the United Nations and other international bodies to join forces in order to accelerate action and ensure accountability for sexual and reproductive health and rights, for justice and development, in line with the Nairobi Statement, the ICPD Programme of Action and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It calls for ambitious action to end shortfalls in sexual and reproductive health and rights that cost lives, destroy health and slow development around the world. The report furthermore includes an elaborate annex that summarizes key global indicators for the global commitments in the Nairobi Statement and presents their current status, globally and regionally, using the most recent available data in a traffic-light matrix.

READ MORE No Exceptions, No Exclusions: Realizing sexual and reproductive health, rights and justice for all | Nairobi Summit (

women entrepreneurs

From striving to thriving: Sunlight to support 100,000 women entrepreneurs

We’re scaling up our Sunlight Women of More programme, which launched last year, with the aim of empowering at least 100,000 female entrepreneurs in East Africa to grow their businesses by 2026.


Women-owned businesses are a bedrock of the Kenyan economy. Research from the International Finance Corporation (PDF | 3MB) shows that they account for almost half of all micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), which contribute around 20% to the country’s GDP.

However, compared with male-owned businesses, they employ fewer staff and are less likely to grow. The main barriers are financial literacy and access to funds. Without which, they are unable to develop their businesses and so remain stuck at the micro-enterprise level.

To address this imbalance, our Sunlight brand set up its Women of More programme. Working alongside the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), Sunlight designed the programme to empower women entrepreneurs through various initiatives, in particular financial literacy training.

Following the success of the pilot – which ran last year and involved 50 women business owners – Sunlight is now scaling up the programme, further strengthening the UNITAR partnership and joining forces with Absa Bank Kenya.

The aim is to reach an additional 5,000 women by December this year and over 100,000 by the end of 2026.

As Henry Muchauraya, Home Care Director for our East Africa business, says: “There is so much potential among women entrepreneurs in Kenya that’s not being realised. This programme is about empowering them with the skills and knowledge to build sustainable, profitable ventures. We want to help them move their businesses from ‘striving’ to ‘thriving’ so they can improve their lives and livelihoods, and contribute even more to their communities.”

90% of what women earn is invested into their homes and communities

The Sunlight Women of More Programme helps business owners develop skills such as how to spot opportunities, turn ideas into strong business plans and apply innovations that lead to competitive advantage. It encourages peer learning, knowledge sharing and networking. The women entrepreneurs are also given the opportunity to market their products alongside the brand’s online activations.

From January to July this year, Sunlight donated its media space – including digital, radio and billboards – to over 170 of women to increase their visibility. While this element of the programme awaits its next cycle, marketing forms an ongoing component of the training. As Henry says: “Helping women to market themselves, especially in the digital world, is really important. The ability to use basic tools like social media to promote their business may sound simple but, when it’s done well, it can make all the difference.”

Disciplines such as marketing and sales are important, but growing a successful business is only possible if the fundamentals are in place. This is where support from Absa Bank comes in, with its ability to advise on how to register a business, formalise operations and keep accurate records.

As Elizabeth Wasunna, Absa’s Director of Business Banking, explains: “These are important factors that not only determine the ability of the entrepreneurs to attract investment and credit, but also scale their businesses to the next level. The Covid-19 pandemic has given rise to more entrepreneurs. We believe that with the right financial literacy, these businesses can grow exponentially.”

The photo above shows Unilever East Africa’s Home Care Director Henry Muchauraya and Absa’s Director of Business Banking Elizabeth Wasunna in front of a Sunlight sponsored billboard during the launch of the Women of More programme.




Providing support to Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) is an integral part of Harvestingstars International Youths Foundation’s mission since 2015. Within the National OVC support guidelines, Harvestingstars International Youths Foundation has been making lifetime investments to enable young Nigerians to acquire educational, medical, and psychosocial balance. Our offices in Lagos and Ibadan provide support to orphans and vulnerable children in partnership with various agencies, organizations and religious bodies. Two of Harvestingstars International Youths Foundation’s initiatives are educational support, with the provision of essential school materials and the Peer Educators’ Programme, and also activities to enhance the marketable life skills that children need for their future.

Cuppa at COP26 Focus on youth and public empowerment

Cuppa at COP26: Focus on youth and public empowerment

Day five of COP26 will focus on Youth and Public Empowerment. Young climate leaders around the world will take to the stage.

Ineza Umuhoza Grace from the Loss and Damage Youth Coalition says negotiators are still not hearing concerns from those in the most affected areas.

“We have more than enough of saying and demanding without having a response,” she said, adding that she needs to return from COP26 with something tangible for her community.

Ineza Umuhoza Grace from the Loss and Damage Youth Coalition

Ineza is co-director of the Loss and Damage Youth Coalition and is speaking on behalf of people from Rwanda who have witnessed impacts of climate change through floods and soil erosion.

The eco-feminist is privy to some of the negotiations at COP26, and said that so far they were not going well and their message is not being heard.

“In regards, negotiations and the blocking of languages or they are not listening to our partners in the negotiation room, it’s still present because they have not changed their tactics, they don’t want to listen and most importantly the least developed countries are making their demands quite clear but no one is there is understand.”

She said it was only the end of week one and she hopes there will be more positive news at the end of next week.

From the perspective of Rwanda, Ineza said they have done less to cause the climate crisis, “but yet our community is at the frontline, so we experience the loss and damage in terms of flooding, erosion and landslide”.

She said in 2020, Rwanda lost more than 4,000 hectares of land due to soil erosion and flooding.

“We are all in the red zone. It will only be possible for me and my children and my family and the older generation also to have a future unless the COP26 delivers, by delivering I mean quit the fake promises, give us some real tangible hope on the ground.”

The inevitable consequences of human-caused climate change are known as loss and damage, it is the third pillar of international climate policy after mitigation and adaptation.

It refers to what has been lost that cannot be replaced due to climate change like human lives.

Monday is the day dedicated to Loss and Damage at COP26.

the High-level Commission on the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25

The HLC anticipates the publication of its first annual report

In September 2021, the High-level Commission on the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25 Follow-up met to finalize preparations for the first-ever Nairobi Summit Annual Report.

On 28 and 29 September 2021, the High-level Commission on the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25 Follow-up (HLC) came together once again to take stock and look towards the future, assessing actions that followed the large number of commitments made at the Nairobi Summit. A special focus remained on the 12 overarching, global commitments contained in the Nairobi Summit Statement. As the Summit approaches its second anniversary, a special focus was on the Commission’s first report on the progress achieved, but also on the issues that still need more attention and work.

In the report, the HLC will detail its findings on the progress of the implementation of the Nairobi Summit commitments. The first annual report is to be a landmark publication and a central piece in the HLC’s quest to ensure that concrete actions will follow the event held in 2019. “We remain committed to our agreement to follow-up on the Nairobi Summit and report on progress to accelerate the ICPD Programme of Action”, said H.E. Dr. Jakaya Kikwete, Former President of the United Republic of Tanzania and one of the two co-chairs of the commission. H.E. Michaëlle Jean, former Governor-General of Canada and former Secretary-General of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie and co-chair of the commission, shared Dr. Kikwete’s enthusiasm: “I join in commending all Commissioners for their passion and investment of time and thought in the work of this commission.”

For the first time since the launch of the Commission a year ago, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, the meeting took on a hybrid format. The co-chairs of the High-Level Commission hosted the meeting by joining  the Commission’s Secretariat at UNFPA Headquarters, in New York, while all other  members continued to join remotely.

The report will be launched in mid-November 2021, marking the groundbreaking Summit’s anniversary. Going forward, the report will be published on an annual basis analyzing achievements and shortcomings.

The Nairobi Summit led to a total of over 1,300 commitments by some 140 Governments, as well as commitments by civil society and other stakeholders from 172 countries and territories, bringing new political momentum to the fulfillment of the promise of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 and its Programme of Action. The commitments and all actions stemming from them, aim to pave the way towards achieving the three transformative results of zero preventable maternal deaths, zero unmet need for family planning, and zero gender-based violence and harmful practices and are key to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

international youth day

Transforming food systems Youth innovation for human and planetary health

With the world’s population expected to increase by 2 billion people in the next 30 years, it has become recognized by numerous stakeholders that simply producing a larger volume of healthier food more sustainably will not ensure human and planetary wellbeing. Other crucial challenges must also be addressed, such as the interlinkages embodied by the 2030 Agenda including poverty reduction; social inclusion; health care; biodiversity conservation; and climate change mitigation. It has been acknowledged that there is a need for inclusive support mechanisms that ensure youth continue to amplify efforts collectively and individually to restore the planet and protect life, while integrating biodiversity in the transformation of food systems.

The theme of International Youth Day 2021, “Transforming Food Systems: Youth Innovation for Human and Planetary Health”, highlights the success of such a global effort will not be achieved without the meaningful participation of young people.

During the 2021 ECOSOC Youth Forum (EYF), the issues and priorities highlighted by young participants included the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly related to its effect on human health, the environment, and food systems. As part of the official outcome recommendations of the EYF, young participants stressed the importance of working towards more equitable food systems. In addition, they highlighted the need for youth to make informed decisions on food choices through increasing global education on the healthiest and most sustainable options for both individuals and the environment. There were also recommendations on providing adequate capacity development with respect to the resilience of food systems, in particular during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and in its aftermath.

Through youth education, engagement, innovation and entrepreneurial solutions, this year’s International Youth Day aims to provide a platform for young people to continue the momentum from the EYF in the lead up to the high-level Food Systems Summit. This year, International Youth Day will be virtually convened by DESA in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Major Group for Children and Youth.

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Support from France to safeguard health and lives of millions of women and girls

Statement by UNFPA Executive Director Dr. Natalia Kanem

The Government of France has announced its intention to contribute €90 million to the UNFPA Supplies Partnership — a flagship programme that provides modern contraceptives and life-saving maternal health medicines to countries with some of the highest maternal death rates in the world.

This contribution comes at a critical moment for the Supplies Partnership. As the COVID-19 pandemic upends health systems around the world, family planning has been one of the most extensively disrupted health services, and the greatest impacts are being felt by the most marginalized women and girls. Yet even as the Supplies Partnership ramps up its efforts to maintain and expand family planning, there is concern about donor commitments being rescinded and diminished.

This new support from the Government of France will safeguard the health and lives of millions of women and girls. We estimate this donation will help UNFPA and its partners prevent 6.8 million unintended pregnancies, 1.9 million unsafe abortions, and 145,000 maternal and child deaths.

More than a contribution, the support is an investment, one that will generate savings for families and developing nations by eliminating about USD $441 million in health care costs related to unintended pregnancies. However, the biggest gains will come in the form of empowered women and girls able to exercise agency over their bodies and determine their own futures.

The pandemic has tested the world’s commitment to multilateralism, and it has exposed the deep inequalities within and across societies. Women’s reproductive health and rights have been undermined, not only by interruptions in services but also in the form of spikes in child marriage, teenage pregnancy, female genital mutilation and gender-based violence.

On behalf of the UNFPA Supplies Partnership, we welcome this strong support by the Government and people of France and the commitment it shows to gender equality. Achieving a better world for women and girls means a better world for all.

READ MORE Support from France to safeguard health and lives of millions of women and girls | United Nations Population Fund (